Elements of Art:
1. Line—a mark made with length and direction. A line can vary in length, width, direction, curvature or color. Line can be two-dimensional (like a pencil line), three-dimensional (like a wire line).
2. Shape— A two-dimensional space defined by a line or color. Shapes can be geometric (like a square, triangle or circle), organic (irregular), positive and negative.
3. Color—the hue (color name), value (lightness or darkness) and intensity (purity or brightness) of an object depicted by an artist. Color may also be symbolic in meaning (such as warm or cool) and may be planned according to various color schemes (such as primary, secondary or complementary).
4. Value—the darkness or lightness of an object or surface, and the darkness or lightness of a color. Value may refer to the gradual change from light to dark in shading, or the lightness or darkness of color (tints and shades).
5. Texture—the way a surface feels (actual texture) or how it may look (simulated texture). Texture may be sensed by sight and touch. Textures are described by words such as rough, smooth, bumpy and prickly.
6. Space—the empty or open area around or between objects. Shapes and forms are made by the space around and within them. Space may be two-dimensional or three-dimensional. Positive space is filled by a shape or form. Negative space surrounds a shape or form.
7. Form—any three-dimensional object. A form can be measured from top to bottom (height), side to side (width) and front to back (depth). Forms may be geometric (like a cube, pyramid or sphere) or organic (irregular, curvy or jagged like a rock, human or tree trunk).
Principles of Art:
1. Balance—the arrangement of parts of an artwork, or how the artist puts the pieces together. An artwork that is balanced seems to have equal visual weight or interest in all areas. Balance may be symmetrical (the same or nearly the same on both sides), asymmetrical (different on both sides, but balanced) or radial (spreading out from a center point).
2. Pattern—a choice of lines, colors or shapes repeated over and over in a planned way. Pattern may be two-dimensional as in a drawing or painting, or three-dimensional as in a sculpture.
3. Rhythm— A type of visual or actual movement in a work of art. Rhythm is created by repeating lines, shapes, colors, values and textures in a work of art.
4. Movement—a way of combining elements to produce a feeling of action. Movement helps the viewer’s eye to sweep over the work in a definite way.
5. Emphasis—areas in a work of art that catches and holds the viewer’s attention. Emphasis may be contrasting sizes, shapes, colors, values, etc. The focal point of a work of art.
6. Proportion—the relation of one object to another in size, amount, or scale.
7. Unity—a feeling that all parts of a design are working together as a team. Unity is the feeling of harmony.
8. Variety— the use of different lines, shapes, colors, values, or textures to create interest in a work of art. The difference may be two things such as rough and smooth, yellow and purple, or light and dark. Contrast adds interest, excitement, drama or variety to a work of art.